in the middle ages develops mainly in the Catholic Christian church, but
secular (non-religious) music, is also performed by poet-composers all
over Europe. Monophony develops to polyphony, and musicians begin to write
meters and note lengths.
development of music in the early Middle Ages was under the influence of
the Christian Church and the "Gregorian
is the only accepted genre in religious singing,
from the 6th Century on. It is a tune based on ancient Greek modes (and
also includes some Hebrew influence).
In the 10th century, polyphony
(multi-voices) appears with the organum.
Even then, singing was conducted in parallel
voices to the main tune,
in intervals of perfect fourths
In Notre Dame,
lived one of the first notable composers, Léonin,
who composed many two-part pieces. His work was revised and extended by
the younger Pérotin.
They were the chief exponents of the 'Ars Antiqua'.
on, polyphony evolves into counterpoint,
which means "point versus point", since notes were marked as
points - voices singing along with a given voice ("cantus firmus")
with strict rules, but not in a fixed interval, as before.
In the 11th Century, Guido
invents the names of the notes and the musical stave.
13th Century mensural
showing a shift away from modal rhythm and free rhythm of Gregorian chant
to a system in which every note has a strictly determined value.
14th Century "Ars
strove towards a new style, unbound by medieval rules of composition. Then
appeared the first great name in music, Guillaume
- a prominent composer in the development of the ballade
and the roundeau,
and one of the most widely celebrated composers in the field of polyphonic
with religious music, secular music was developed from the 11th Century,
France) and Minnesingers
the popular poet-composers-singers of love songs and chansons
who accompanied themselves with the lute
(ancient guitar). Hildegard
is an example of this kind of musician.